The emissions mission

19 March 2008

Caterpillar's new proprietary fuel management system on the 988H large wheel loader boasts fuel savi

Caterpillar's new proprietary fuel management system on the 988H large wheel loader boasts fuel savings of +15%.

The harmonisation of EU and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards is now taking shape. Stage III/IV limits are now aligned with the US Tier 3/4 standards, whereas previously Stage I/II EU limits were only partially harmonised with US EPA regulations.

The Tier 3 and Stage IIIA EU emission standards are being introduced in steps, which started in January 2006 with Stage IIIA affecting the 130 to 560 kW powerband. At beginning of 2007 the 75 to 130 kW and the 19 to 37 kW powerbands were affected by the same regulations and the 37 to 75kW range must be Stage IIIA compliant by January 2008. Engine manufacturers are now concerned with how to become compliant with Stage IIIB/Interim Tier 4 emissions regulations. They must research technologies in order to reduce emissions while retaining performance, serviceability and durability of the final product. The first powerband to be a?ected by these standards will be the 130 to 560 kW range in 2011 with the 75 to 130 kW and the 56 to 75 kW powerbands following in 2012. The 37 to 56 kW powerband will be affected by the regulations in 2013. Stage IV and EPA

Final Tier 4 enter into force in 2014.

Ric Kleine, vice president of Cummins off-highway business said the company continues its progress towards meeting the stringent 2011 EPA Tier 4 and EU Stage IIIB emissions regulations.

He said, “By combining enhanced engine platforms with integrated aftertreatment systems, Cummins test cell research has achieved the -90% reduction in PM (Particulate Matter) and -45% reduction in NOx/HC (Oxides of Nitrogen/Hydrocarbon) emissions required by the EPA across the 174 to 751 hp (130 to 560 kW) range taking effect from 1 January 2011.”

A year later the regulations extend down to 75 hp (56 kW) with the same PM reduction, though with less demanding NOx emissions levels, Mr Kleine added.

The 2011 EPA and EUoff-road regulations replace engine-measured emissions with tailpipe-measured emissions as a single system. Cummins is working toward Tier 4 and Stage IIIB under the more rigorous conditions of the non-road transient composite (NRTC) test cycle required for regulatory compliance.

Communications director for Cummins, Kevan Browne, added achieving reduced emissions requires a major technological effort, adding that retaining reliability and durability of the finished product while reducing emissions was key.

Mr Kleine said, “Utilising analysis led-design tools together with up to 100000 test cell hours and 50000 field test operating hours anticipated by the time of the programme launch, we are confident in our ability to provide the best value integrated system to the offical-road markets”.

Cummins has invested significantly in a broad technology portfolio, which extends from air intake to exhaust aftertreatment, including high-pressure common rail fuel systems, controls and advanced turbocharging, Mr Kleine said.

“EPA and EU emissions reductions in 2011 require the use of exhaust aftertreatment, and we are evaluating alternatives. We are able to leverage our vast experience in other markets where exhaust aftertreatment systems are already in production,” Mr Kleine said.

He added that Cummins particulate filter and selective catalytic reduction systems are proven aftertreatment technologies capable of meeting 2011 off-road emissions levels for engines above 100 hp (75 kW).

“Installation and operational aspects of these systems are currently being evaluated for -road applications,” Mr Kleine said.

By 2008 Cummins will be in a position to identify which of these systems offers the best value and performance proposition for construction equipment customers, he said. Mr Browne said that the broad range of construction machinery and the multitude of applications complicated the development of aftertreatment systems.

“It's a barrier and it's got to be overcome and it will be overcome... It entails the biggest challenge in terms of design that the industry has faced,” he said.

Jacques Febvre, manager of engine sales, marketing, and customer support – Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, for John Deere Power Systems echoed these sentiments.

He said, “This it not easy but we believe it can be done. We have started to communicate with our internal partners and main OEM customers about this and we have a series of conferences describing the various scenarios of how to be Interim Tier 4 compliant.”

ENGINES

Many John Deere Power Systems’ (JDPS) engines under 75 kW are now US EPA Tier 3, Interim Tier 4 and EU Stage IIIA ready. Four ratings of the PowerTech M 2.4 litre engines are planned for EPA interim Tier 4 and these engines will also meet current EU Stage IIIA standards. Four new ratings of the PowerTech E 2.4 litre engine and one new rating of the PowerTech E 3.0 litre are Interim Tier 4 and Stage IIIA ready.

Mr Febvre said rather than customers being concerned that their engines are emission compliant, they are more interested in is its performance, energy eficiency and reliability.

Caterpillar's family of Tier 2/Stage II, and Tier 3/Stage IIIA compliant diesel engines with ACERT technology intended for the industrial and off-highway markets has grownn to include 12 models, covering the range from 62 kW to 2700 kW.

A spokesman for Caterpillar said the ACERT technology concepts revolve around precise control of the combustion cycle accomplished via a systems approach to air management, electronics, fuel systems and combustion systems. The primary driving force behind ACERT technology is the requirement to meet Tier 3/Stage IIIA in the US and Europe and new and increasingly stringent emission standards in other areas of the world, the spokesman said.

“But equally important during the ACERT technology development process has been Cat's internal mandate to achieve this goal with no sacrifice in engine reliability or durability while delivering improved operating economy and reduced lifecycle cost,” the spokesman added.

Caterpillar has also introduced three new compact, emissions-compliant diesel engines intended for use in small and mid-size construction.

Caterpillar marketing manager, Mike Reinhart, said, “Our compact engine line-up gives OEMs a clear transition from gasoline to diesel power. These new diesel engines offer unprecedented power density along with the traditional diesel advantages in fuel economy, durability, and reliability.”

Volvo CE president and chief executive, Tony Helsham, said that increasingly stringent emissions requirements together with customer demands for improved performance and fuel eficiency are set to prove insurmountable obstacles to equipment manufacturers without their own engine development capability.

He said, ‘There are only a few companies in the world that have the critical mass to be able to devote thenecessary resources – people, money and time – to develop the technologies and solutions for the future. Volvo is one of these-and this ability is going to be a key strategic advantage for the future.”

Hybrid technology

At the Bauma exhibition Volvo CE announced that the company plans to offer machines featuring hybrid technology by 2009.

Mr Helsham said that the first machine to be launched using hybrid technology is likely to be a wheel loader with fuel savings of up to -50%.

A spokesman for Volvo said: “All eyes are now focusing on diesel-electric hybrid engines-and as the world's largest producer of heavy duty engines Volvo is at the forefront of next generation engine and fuel technology.”

Mattias Nordin, of Volvo CE's components division, said, “Within Volvo we are particularly proud of our environmental and quality focus. For the next generation of Tier 4 engines, we will leverage the strong Volvo group engine platform, and combine it with the dedicated Volvo engine development for construction equipment. What we expect to achieve are Tier 4 engines with significantly better fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3, which is then also a main contribution to the environment by reducing CO2 emissions and global heating.”

Deutz and Weyhaussen showcased the first ‘mild’ hybrid system for construction equipment at Bauma. It includes a motor-generator being installed in the power train between the diesel engine and hydraulic pump.

A spokesman for the company said that such systems allow fuel savings of between-10 and-20%.

“At this development stage of the power unit all functions on the equipment side are still hydraulically driven. In the next step the wheel loader will be powered by a full hybrid drive system and therefore a strictly electric and emission-free operation,” the spokesman said.

Deutz says it has already established the preconditions to comply with the EU Stage IIIB and EPA Tier 4 for its 2010 series four-cylinder engines (from 50 to 74.9kW).

Increasing future performance

MTU Friedrichshafen unveiled its new series 4000 diesel engines for construction machines at this year's Bauma exhibition.

Rainer Breidenbach, executive vice president, sales and marketing at MTU Friedrichshafen, said, “Stricter emissions limits and increasing demands on performance were the driving factors behind further development of this series of high-speed off-highway engines engines especially conceived and built for the construction sector and power generation as well as for rail and marine applications.”

He explained that the electric engine control adjusts the injection system to optimum combustion valves thus guaranteeing low fuel consumption as well as low exhaust emissions.

The new JCB Dieslemax 444 engine in Tier 3 form will be available in power ratings of 99kW, 109kW and 120kW. The engines feature electronically controlled, common rail fuel systems. The sub 75kW Tier 3 engines are being finalised for production by the end of this year and will continue to utilise mechanical fuel systems.

JCB group engineering director, Dr Tim Leverton, said, “The JCB Dieselmax engine features an advanced combustion system which complies with Tier 3 emissions, and as a base engine it is also very well placed to meet Tier 4 legislation in conjunction with a particulate trap and exhaust after-treatment. That has been one of the main benefits of designing designing an engine from a clean sheet of paper: wehe been able to future proof it and ensure it meets the demands of the next decade.”

Lower power

Many John Deere Power Systems’ (JDPS) engines under 75 kW are now US EPA Tier 3, Interim Tier 4 and EU Stage IIIA ready. Four ratings of the PowerTech M 2.4 litre engines are planned for EPA interim Tier 4 and these engines will also meet current EU Stage IIIA standards. Four new ratings of the PowerTech E 2.4 litre engine and one new rating of the PowerTech E 3.0 litre are Interim Tier 4 and Stage IIIA ready.

Mr Febvre said rather than customers being concerned that their engines are emission compliant, they are more interested in is its performance, energy efficiency and reliability.

Caterpillar's family of Tier 2/Stage II, and Tier 3/Stage IIIA compliant diesel engines with ACERT technology intended for the industrial and of-highway markets has grown to include 12 models, covering the range from 62 kW to 2700 kW.

A spokesman for Caterpillar said the ACERT technology concepts revolve around precise control of the combustion cycle accomplished via a systems approach to air management, electronics, fuel systems and combustion systems. The primary driving force behind ACERT technology is the requirement to meet Tier 3/Stage IIIA in the US and Europe and new and increasingly stringent emission standards in other areas of the world, the spokesman said.

“But equally important during the ACERT technology development process has been Cat's internal mandate to achieve this goal with no sacri?ce in engine reliability or durability while delivering improved operating economy and reduced lifecycle cost,” the spokesman added.

Caterpillar has also introduced three new compact, emissions-compliant diesel engines intended for use in small and mid-size construction.

Caterpillar marketing manager, Mike Reinhart, said, “Our compact engine line-up gives OEMs a clear transition from gasoline to diesel power. These new diesel engines other unprecedented power density along with the traditional diesel advantages in fuel economy, durability, and reliability.”

Volvo CE president and chief executive, Tony Helsham, said that increasingly stringent emissions requirements together with customer demands for improved performance and fuel eficiency are set to prove insurmountable obstacles to equipment manufacturers without their own engine development capability.

He said, There are only a few companies in the world that have the critical mass to be able to devote the necessary resources – people, money and time – to develop the technologies and solutions for the future. Volvo is one of these – and this ability is going to be a key strategic advantage for the future.”

Hybrid technology

At the Bauma exhibition Volvo CE announced that the company plans toofier machines featuring hybrid technology by 2009.

Mr Helsham said that the first machine to be launched using hybrid technology is likely to be a wheel loader with fuel savings of up to-50%.

A spokesman for Volvo said: &38220;All eyes are now focusing on diesel-electric hybrid engines – and as the world's largest producer of heavy duty engines Volvo is at the forefront of next generation engine and fuel technology.”

Mattias Nordin, of Volvo CE's components division, said, “Within Volvo we are particularly proud of our environmental and quality focus.

For the next generation of Tier 4 engines, we will leverage the strong Volvo group engine platform, and combine it with the dedicated Volvo engine development for construction equipment. What we expect to achieve are Tier 4 engines with significantly better fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3, which is then also a main contribution to the environment by reducing CO2 emissions andglobal heating.”

Deutz and Weyhaussen showcased the mild hybrid system for construction equipmentat Bauma. It includes a motor-generator being installed in the power train between the diesel engine and hydraulic pump.

A spokesman for the company said that such systems allow fuel savings of between-10 and-20%.

“At this development stage of the power unit all functions on the equipment side are still hydraulically driven. In the next step the wheel loader will be powered by a full hybrid drive system and therefore a strictly electric and emission-free operation,” the spokesman said.

Deutz says it has already established the preconditions to comply with the EU Stage IIIB and EPA Tier 4 for its 2010 series four-cylinder engines (from 50 to 74.9kW).

Increasing future performance MTU Friedrichshafen unveiled its new series 4000 diesel engines for construction machines at this year's Bauma exhibition.

Rainer Breidenbach, executive vice president, sales and marketing at MTU Friedrichshafen, said, “Stricter emissions limits and increasing demands on performance were the driving factors behind further development of this series of high-speed of.-highway engines especially conceived and built for the construction sector and power generation as well as for rail and marine applications.”

He explained that the electric engine control adjusts the injection system to optimum combustion valves thus guaranteeing low fuel consumption as well as low exhaust emissions.

The new JCB Dieslemax 444 engine in Tier 3 form will be available in power ratings of 99kW, 109kW and 120kW. The engines feature electronically controlled, common rail fuel systems. The sub 75kW Tier 3 engines are being finalised for production by the end of this year and will continue to utilise mechanical fuel systems.

JCB group engineering director, Dr Tim Leverton, said, “The JCB Dieselmax engine features an advanced combustion system which complies with Tier 3 emissions, and as a base engine it is also very well placed to meet Tier 4 legislation in conjunction with a particulate trap and exhaust after-treatment.

That has been one of the main benefits of designing an engine from a clean sheet of paper: weve been able to future proof it and ensure it meets the demands of the next decade.”

Lower power

A new trio of mechanically controlled four-cylinder engines have been developed by Perkins, which meet the criteria of the new emissions standards and provide OEMs with non-electronic options.

Product marketing manager for Perkins, Tim Cresswell, said, “While the adoption of electronics to meet emissions compliance for higher horsepowers i.e. 75 kW to 560 kW was the way forward, the choice for lower horsepower was not so clear cut.”

He added there are few mechanical engines on the market that can meet the new emissions complianceoffer a span of power outputs outputs in the 56 kW to 75 kW range and provide a choice of aspirations.

The 1104D mechanical series is a Tier 3/Stage IIIA compliant range, comprising three engine models that span 56 kW to 83 kW. The 1104D-44T, a four-cylinder turbocharged, 4.4 litre unit pushes out 74.5 kW at 2200rpm. Other engines include the naturally aspirated base model the 1104D-44 and the turbocharged charge cooled 1104D-44TA.

Mr Cresswell said, “The 1100D is much more than a simple Tier 2 makeover.

Internally a major overhaul of the fuel system, injectors, combustion chamber and pistons has been carried out. A new improved rotary fuel pump matched with new injectors ensures optimum fuel delivery to the combustion chamber.

The piston crown now features a revised bowl shape for better air of management while the fuel injection prople and timing of it has been painstakingly developed toprovide the most efficient combustion process yet.”

Outlook

The deadlines for Stage IIIB/Interim Tier 4 and Final Tier 4 emission laws are not imminent but engine manufacturers are already preparing for the changes.

Mr Febrve said he could not predict what would happen next once engine manufacturers were Final Tier 4 compliant.

He said, “Maybe there will be something else that we will have to consider but not necessarily in the range the range of NOx or PM because we will probably probably be near zero by then – but there could be other issues.

We don't foresee them right now but the need for clean air and progress is never ending so there will probably be something that will come up in the future.”

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